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只生產50架就停產性能先進的殲10B為何最終被放棄雷達戰斗機
2020-01-11 17:22  www.korraniha.com

  歼-10作为我国自主研发的第四代战斗机,在经历了数次升级后,歼-10家族衍生出了歼10A、歼-10S、歼-10B、歼-10C等型号。其中,歼-10B和歼-10C作为改动最大的两款型号,不论是外形还是机载设备都有了脱胎换骨的变化。

As the fourth generation fighter aircraft developed independently in China, the J-10 family derived J-10A, J-10S, J-10B, J-10C and so on after several upgrades. Among them, J-10B and J-10C are the two models with the biggest changes, both in shape and in airborne equipment.

  机头是歼-10B相对于歼-10A改动最大的地方,首先雷达换了,从脉冲多普勒火控雷达升级成国产相控阵雷达,这一点从雷达罩与机身的倾斜结合线就能看出。因为相控阵雷达的天线阵列通常是呈一定仰角安装的,这样可以将透过天线罩进入雷达舱的来射雷达波,通过倾斜的雷达阵面反射到其它方向,从而大大降低机头雷达舱对飞机RCS的贡献,有利于降低雷达反射面积。因此为方便维护,雷达罩后端也设计成倾斜状。

The head of the J-10B is the biggest change to the J-10A, the first radar changed, from the pulse Doppler fire control radar to the domestic phased array radar, this point can be seen from the radar hood and the fuselage of the tilt line. Because the antenna array of phased array radar is usually installed with certain elevation angle, it can reflect the radar wave through the radome into the radar cabin and reflect the radar wave in other directions through the inclined radar array surface, thus greatly reducing the contribution of the head radar cabin to the aircraft RCS, which is beneficial to reduce the radar reflection area. Therefore, for easy maintenance, the rear end of the radome is also designed to tilt.

  根据公开资料,这款国产无源相控阵雷达可以同时跟踪10多个目标,同时攻击4个目标,而且采用宽带设计,提高了雷达抗干扰能力,这种雷达装备在歼-10B上面,让歼-10B成为中国空军第一种配备相控阵雷达的战斗机。不过无源相控阵雷达最大缺点就是探测距离受到限制,这是因为无源相控阵雷达电磁波传递环节较多,相应损耗较大,这一点虽然对歼-10B的作战性能有一点影响,但总体来说,歼10B的探测性能和使用武器能力比歼-10A有了很大提高。

According to public information, the domestic passive phased array radar can track more than 10 targets at the same time, attack four targets, and use broadband design to improve the anti-jamming ability of the radar, which is equipped on top of the J-10B, making the J-10B the first fighter with phased array radar in the Chinese air force. However, the biggest disadvantage of passive phased array radar is that the detection distance is limited, which is because the passive phased array radar has more electromagnetic wave transmission links and larger corresponding loss, which has a little effect on the combat performance of J-10B, but in general, the detection performance and the ability to use weapons of J-10B are greatly improved than that of J-10A.

  雷达罩上部的球形凸起装置是歼-10B增加的红外搜索与跟踪系统,主要用于被动式的红外搜索与追踪,与机载火控雷达相比,该系统可实现无源探测,能通过成像来识别目标,以及可以在高强度电磁干扰下工作。因为任何物体在温度高于绝对零度时都会发出红外热辐射,尤其是飞机在高速飞行时与空气摩擦会无可避免地发出红外热辐射。红外搜索与跟踪系统就是一种被动式长波红外探测传感器,可在电子干扰的环境下对远距红外热源进行监测及跟踪。虽然红外搜索和跟踪系统受探测距离限制,难以实现大范围搜索,但可以根据雷达无源探测模式下得到的粗坐标进行搜索,从而精确识别与追踪敌方目标。此外,通过与头盔瞄准/显示系统进行信息融合,再配合大离轴角红外空空导弹,可大大提高飞行员在近距离接战时的反应速度。

The spherical raised device at the top of the radome is an infrared search and tracking system with J-10B addition, which is mainly used for passive infrared search and tracking. Compared with airborne fire control radar, the system can realize passive detection, identify targets by imaging, and can work under high intensity electromagnetic interference. Because any object emits infrared radiation when the temperature is above absolute zero, especially when the aircraft rubs with the air at high speed. Infrared search and tracking system is a passive long-wave infrared detection sensor, which can monitor and track the remote infrared heat source under the environment of electronic interference. Although the infrared search and tracking system is limited by the detection distance, it is difficult to achieve a wide range of search, but it can be based on the coarse coordinates obtained in the radar passive detection mode to accurately identify and track the enemy target. In addition, by combining information with the helmet aiming\/display system and combining with the large-axle infrared air-to-air missile, the response speed of the pilot during the close-range combat can be greatly improved.

  歼-10B相对于歼-10A的另一个显著改变是:将原来的可调多波系矩形超音速进气道改为了无附面层隔道超音速进气道,也就是DSI进气道。它采用个固定的鼓包来模拟常规进气道中的隔板,并能够达到对气流的压缩,以及简化结构、降低重量减小雷达反射面积的目的,而且对飞机的迎角和侧滑角变化不敏感,稳定性好。在歼-10B之前,我国已经在“枭龙”战斗机上应用了DSI进气道,之后的歼-10C和歼-20等型机上也使用了DSI进气道,显示出我国在该领城理论研究和工程应用方面的纯熟功力。为适应DS进气道,机头也由原来的圆锥型变为了扁圆形,以起到对空气进入进气道前的预压缩作用。虽然研究表明,DSI进气道在飞行包线右端部分区域的总压恢复系数不如可调式超音速进气道,但是使用DSI进气道能节省数百千克的重量,还大大简化了进气道结构,提高了可靠性。也就是说,歼-10B在改用DSI进气道后,其超音速性能可能会略微降低,却换来了整个亚音速和跨音速段包线的性能提升。这显示出歼-10战斗机的作战定位发生了变化,从早先带有截击功能的制空型战斗机向多用途方面转变。

Another significant change from J-10B to J-10A is the change of the original adjustable multi-wave system rectangular supersonic inlet to the unattached layer septum supersonic inlet, the DSI inlet. It uses a fixed drum to simulate the baffle in the conventional inlet, and can achieve the purpose of compressing the air flow, simplifying the structure, reducing the weight and reducing the radar reflection area, and is insensitive to the change of the angle of attack and the sideslip angle of the aircraft, and has good stability. Before the J-10B, our country has applied the DSI inlet to the \"Xiaolong\" fighter plane, and the subsequent J-10C and J-20 aircraft also used the DSI inlet, which shows our country's proficiency in the theoretical research and engineering application of the city. In order to adapt to the DS inlet, the nose also changed from the original cone to a flat circle to play a pre-compression effect on the air before entering the inlet. although studies have shown that the total pressure recovery coefficient of the dsi inlet at the right end of the flight package line is not as good as the adjustable supersonic inlet, the use of the dsi inlet can save hundreds of kg of weight and greatly simplify the inlet structure and improve reliability. In other words, the supersonic performance of J-10B may be slightly reduced after switching to the DSI inlet, in exchange for improved performance across subsonic and transonic packet lines. This shows a change in the operational positioning of the J-10 fighters, from an earlier air-conditioned fighter with an intercept function to a multi-purpose approach.

  动力系统方面,虽然有照片显示,至少有数架歼10B战斗机换装了国产“太行”发动机,其中的1034号机甚至还采用了“太行”改发动机和矢量喷口,但由于“太行”发动机的产量还无法同时满足歼-15、歼16、歼-11BS等多型战机的生产需求,因而歼-10B的大部分量产型号仍然使用了俄制AL-31FN发动机。“太行”和AL-31FN发动机在装机后的区分可以从尾喷管的外形来识别,还是比较好分辨的。值得提的是,歼-10B既能使用AL-31FN也能使用“太行”的事实,说明该机的动力系统兼容性设计得非常出色,这对战时的后勤保障是很有利的,也非常有利于该型机的后续发展。

On the power system side, although photos show that at least a number of J-10B fighter jets have been replaced with domestic "Taihang" engines, of which 1034 have even adopted "Taihang" engines and vector vents, most of the J-10B's mass-produced models still use the Russian AL-31FN engine because the output of the J-15, J16 and J-11BS engines has not yet met the production needs of multiple fighter jets. "Taihang" and the AL-31FN engine after the installation of the distinction can be identified from the shape of the tail tube, or better to distinguish. It is worth mentioning that the fact that J-10B can use both AL-31FN and “Taihang ” shows that the power system compatibility design of the machine is very excellent, which is very beneficial to the logistic support of wartime and the subsequent development of the model.

  歼-10B战斗机上布置有11个外挂点,其中机翼下一共有6个,机身中线1个,进气道侧面一共有4个。可挂载短距导弹、中距导弹和大量的对地攻击武器,对空作战和对地作战的能力极强,而且该机还可以使用复合挂架进一步优化其挂载能力。当执行防空巡逻任务时,歼-10B可在两对外侧挂架上各挂两枚中距空空导弹和两枚近距空空导弹,挂弹总数量达到8枚。当然,若用于执行对地攻击任务,复合挂架的优势就更明显了。

The J-10B fighter has 11 hanging points, including 6 under the wing,1 in the center line of the fuselage and 4 on the side of the inlet. The ability to mount short-range missiles, medium-range missiles and a large number of ground-to-ground attack weapons is extremely strong for air and ground operations, and the aircraft can further optimize its mount capability using composite hangers. When conducting air defense patrols, J-10B can hang two medium-range air-to-air missiles and two short-range air-to-air missiles on each of the two outer hangers, with a total of 8 missiles. Of course, the advantages of composite hangers are even more obvious if they are used to carry out an attack on the ground.

  歼-10B可在一对外侧挂架上挂上类似于美军“小直径炸弹”(SDB)那样的小型精确制导炸弹用于对地面目标实施低附带损伤的精确打击。而另一对挂架则还可用于挂近距空空导弹,在执行对地攻击任务的同时,仍然保持一定的自卫空战能力。歼-10B可使用国产第二代激光制导炸弹,提高了投放距离和命中精度,能在能见度较差、风速较大的环境下打击地面、海面低速移动目标。除了1000千克和500千克级精确制导炸弹只能挂载在内侧重型挂架上,歼-10B可以通过复合挂架挂载多枚250千克100千克激光制导炸弹,载弹量大为提高。

The J-10B can mount a small precision-guided bomb on a pair of outer hangers similar to the US Army's Small Diameter Bomb (SDB) to perform a low collateral damage to ground targets. Another pair of hangers can also be used to carry out short-range air-to-air missiles, while carrying out attacks on the ground, still maintain a certain self-defense air combat capability. J-10B can use domestic second-generation laser guided bombs to improve the delivery distance and hit accuracy, and can hit the ground and sea surface low-speed moving targets in the environment of poor visibility and high wind speed. With the exception of 1000 kg and 500 kg precision guided bombs mounted only on the inner heavy-duty hangers, J-10B can mount multiple 250 kg 100 kg laser guided bombs through the composite hangers, with a significant increase in the load.

  歼-10B保留了歼-10A兼顾亚音速和跨音速机动、高敏捷性和具备良好超音速拦截作战能力的全动鸭翼布局,采用先进的相控阵雷达与红外光电系统相配合,全面升级电子对抗系统,并在进气道设计上进行了全面优化,同时还对机身结构进行了优化加强,提高了武器挂载能力。通过这些改进措施,歼-10B弥补了歼-10A的性能短板,进一步发挥了歼-10战斗机总体设计方案的性能特点,完成了从制空型向多用途战斗机的转型,综合作战能力全面提升,满足了新时期中国空军对于信息化条件下空中作战的新要求。

The J-10B preserves the full-action duck wing layout of J-10A with subsonic and transonic maneuverability, high agility and good supersonic interception capability, adopts advanced phased array radar to cooperate with infrared photoelectric system, comprehensively upgrades the electronic countermeasure system, and optimizes the inlet design. Through these improvement measures, J-10B makes up for the short performance of J-10A, further exerts the performance characteristic of the overall design scheme of J-10 fighter, completes the transformation from the air-control type to the multi-purpose fighter, and improves the comprehensive combat capability, which meets the new requirements of the Chinese Air Force for air operations under the condition of information in the new period.

  在歼-10B的改进上,我们不仅看到的是一架性能提升明显的改进型战斗机的诞生,更重要的是我们在气动设计、机载雷达、航空电子和材料系统等领域的全方位进步,这些技术上的进步也将应用到其它新型战斗机的研发和改进上,对于中国空军战斗力的全面提升是有利的。

In the improvement of J-10B, we not only see the birth of an improved fighter with obvious performance improvement, but also the full range of our advances in pneumatic design, airborne radar, avionics and material systems, which will be applied to the development and improvement of other new fighter jets, which will be beneficial to the overall improvement of the combat effectiveness of the Chinese Air Force.

  也正是因为中国航空技术进步神速,歼-10B战斗机只生产了50架就宣告停产,完成了自己的过渡使命。取而代之的是在歼-10B基础上发展的,各方面技术进一步完善的歼-10C。从目前歼-10C战斗机源源不断地生产装备来看,中国空军对其性能比较满意,是一型“理想状态”的三代半战机。

It is precisely because of the rapid advances in Chinese aviation technology that the J-10B fighter jet has been shut down after only 50 aircraft were produced, fulfilling its transitional mission. Instead, it was developed on the basis of J-10B, and all aspects of technology were further improved by J-10C. Judging from the continuous production of J-10C fighter aircraft equipment, the Chinese Air Force is satisfied with its performance and is a \"ideal state\" of the three-and-a-half aircraft.